Spine & Joint Pain Specialists Spine & Joint Pain Specialists Make Your Appointment Pay your bill

Chronic Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)  or Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD)


CRPS/RSD can be triggered by injuries to the bones or soft tissue, by surgeries and by immobilizing the limb in a cast to treat a fracture. Researchers don’t know for certain why some patients develop CRPS/RSD and other don’t, but there are indications that CRPS/RSD sufferers may have nerve abnormalities that lead to more complex disorders in the central nervous system (spinal cord and brain.) Abnormal dilation or constriction of blood vessels can cause fluid build-up in tissues, starving them of oxygen. This leads to muscle and joint damage and pain. Autoimmune responses and, in rare cases, family genetics may cause CRPS/RSD.


Your doctor will review your medical history and talk with you about your symptoms. A history of an earlier injury can be an indicator of CRPS/RSD. Other conditions can mimic CRPS/RSD, so we’ll also run tests to rule out those conditions (Lyme disease, arthritis, blocked vein, certain muscle diseases and nerve damage caused by diabetes). An MRI or bone scan may help reveal CRPS/RSD-related changes to bone

Treatment Options

  • Dorsal root ganglion therapy (DRG)
  • Spinal cord stimulation (SCS)
  • Peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS)
  • Epidural steroid injection (ESI)
  • Facet joint injections
  • Lumbar epidural steroid injections(LESI)
  • Transforaminal epidural steroid injections (Transforaminal ESI)
  • Radiofrequency ablation (neuorotomy) (RFA)